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Composite Recycling

This note brings together a number of reports and presentations to give an overview of the composite recycling industry.

Much of the infomration is based on US experience, where the bulk of the industry resides. The US market exhibits some characteristics of a mature industry such as price stabilisation and standardisation of pricing. This is encouraging players to differentiate by focussing or developing technology. There remains significant growth opportunities as the bulk of raw materials are still lost to land fill. However, regulation is forcing municipalities, buisnesses, consumers to recycle: landfill is full and exporting is increasingly regulated. The demand for recycling among consumers can be demonstrated, however, the lack of infrastructure to collect material makes consumer involvement less attractive. Here again, regulation is forcing industry and governemnt to establish infrastrutucture. These market forces are also driving Europe, which is similar to the US, and emerging markets which are now refusing others' waste and rapidly developing indigenous industry.

Compiled November 2003

Contents:

USA EPA Notes Characterization and Processing of Plastics Electronics Recycling Vendor Survey
Used Electronics Recycling Market Report August 2003 Start-up and beyond.  Waste recycling Case study Potential Markets for CRTs and Plastics from Electronics Demanufacturing.
State of Affairs in Electronics Recycling - Advancing Electronics Recycling in the Midwest Electronics Recycling Workshop Why Climate Change is Relevant to Recycling and Waste Prevention Professionals?
Asset Recovery and Recycling Electronics Reuse & Recycling Market Information Report NY, USA October 2001 Toolkit for setting up Electronics Recycling Programmes
Recycling Electronic Scrap Used Electronics Recycling Market Survey October 2001.  
Recycling Used Electronics Report on Minnesota s Demonstration Project 1998 North Carolina Markets Assessment
of the Recycling Industry and Recyclable Materials
 
Computer Collection Events Recycling Market Development for Engineering Thermoplastics from Used Electronic Equipment  



USA EPA Notes

Overview of recycling industry.

Links etc to other resources.

Used Electronics Recycling Market Report August 2003

(Click to view . pdf)

State of Affairs in Electronics Recycling - Advancing Electronics Recycling in the Midwest

Useful insights and forecasts by industry observer. December 11, 2002 (Click to view .ppt)

Jerry Powell, Editor E-Scrap News jpowell@resource-recycling.com

Asset Recovery and Recycling:
United Datatech and ECS Refining.  A partnership at the core of other recycling interdependencies.

(Click to view copy. ppt)

Main Entry: 1re·cy·cle  ; Pronunciation: rE-'sI-k&l    Date: 1926

transitive senses

1 : to pass again through a series of changes or treatments: as a : to process in order to regain material for human use b : RECOVER
2 : to adapt to a new use : ALTER
3 : to bring back : REUSE 4 : to make ready for reuse

intransitive senses

2 : to return to an original condition so that operation can begin again -- used of an electronic device

Approach:

  • Comprehensive component/product recovery for reuse.

  • Separation of all product streams

  • No Landfill policy

  • No offshore shipment of “E-waste”.

If it isn’t your responsibility today, someone will make it your responsibility tomorrow. 

Lead.  Don’t follow.

Recycling Electronic Scrap www.maineplastics.com Chicago, USA David Kaplan

(Click to view copy. ppt)

Capabilities:
Grinding
Baling
Shear / Guillotine
Ferrous and non-ferrous metal removal
Laboratory Testing
Quality Control Procedures

Marketability:
Quantity   
Color   
Classification
Consistency
Cleanliness
Condition (ground, unground, baled)
Location (freight)

Challenges:
Cross Contamination from:
            1. Other Plastics
            2. Non-Plastics
                   a. Metal
                   b. Dirt and glue
                   c. Paper
Lack of uniform material standards & identification
Foaming agents and additives
Laminates
Multiple plastic parts   
High labor costs
Weight = Freight Cost = lost $$

Solutions
Isolate large quantities of the same part from one manufacturer
Keep it  CLEAN
Bale or grind to increase weight and reduce freight
Separate colors when possible
Advocate standardization of plastics
When in doubt, sample your customer

Recycling Used Electronics Report on Minnesota s Demonstration Project

(Click to view presentation. ppt)
(Click to view executive summary .html)
(Click to viewfull report. pdf 1.3 MB)

To learn more about the costs and barriers to recycling used electronic products. Electronics contain significant amounts of contaminants, including mercury, lead, cadmium, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Cathode ray tubes (CRTs), the picture tubes from televisions and computer monitors, are one of the largest sources of lead in municipal waste.

Bearing some of the costs for managing products at end-of-life encourages manufacturers to design products differently, so that the products use less packaging, are easier to recycle and contain fewer toxic constituents. lead, but 22 to 25 percent of the funnel glass, by weight, is in the form of lead oxide.

July 31 to October 31, 1999

Computer Collection Events

Case study. Lessons and data. (Click to view .ppt)

Characterization and Processing of Plastics from Minnesota’s Demonstration Project for the Recovery of End-of-Life Electronics 8 November 2000

(Click to view .pdf)

Cascade Asset Management - a case study.  Chicago, Il, USA. 

Start-up and beyond.  Waste recycling.

Asia determines demand.  ISO 14001 ...

Special Collection Events - USA study. 1 - 3 % participation.  About 40 kg and 3.6 units per delivery (mostly by car).

Future issues: Markets; Flat panel; Gold value; Items becoming obsolete faster;CRT’s. Average of 44% monitors and 56% CPU’s and Other Computer Equipment

(Click to view . ppt)

Electronics Recycling Workshop:

(Click to view copy. ppt)

Why is e-waste the #1
Recycling Problem?
Proliferation of e-products
+
Increasingly short life-spans
+
Toxic material constituents
+
No cogent strategy for end-of-life management

Response to the Problem

  • Local governments mobilizing to prevent wholesale disposal of e-waste

  • State governments beginning to regulate and mandate potential solutions

  • Federal government proposing to declassify CRTs as hazardous waste

  • OEM’s and retailers implementing patchwork of programs to take back e-waste

  • Stakeholders convening under National Electronics Product Stewardship Initiative

  • Electronic recycling enterprises and donation centers ramping up

Recovery Options by Generator Type

Generator:

Large Corporations/Organizations/Agencies

Small Businesses/Organizations

Residential

Options:

• Asset management/leasing opportunities with OEMs or equipment vendors

• Contracts with recyclers for material pick-up, processing and indemnification against future liability

•    Limited asset management/leasing opportunity

Limited municipal recovery

•    Onus on generator to identify recycler and arrange for material pick-up/delivery

•  Collection programs increasingly available

•    Local reuse options

•    Potential for product return to retailers and/or OEMs

Poses the questions Who should bear/share program costs? and How do we differentiate between “legitimate” and “illegitimate” recycling, particularly overseas?

Electronics Reuse & Recycling Market Information Report NY, USA October 2001

(Click to view copy. pdf)

Of the 198 surveys distributed, 36 organizations responded. However, only 33 of these actually provide reuse or recycling services. This represents a 17% response rate. · 33 companies were verified as providing reuse or recycling services in the targeted region. · 26 companies accept computer monitors (CRTs). · 9 companies accept televisions. · Approximately ½ of the companies providing reuse or recycling services will also provide transportation and collection services. · 85% of the companies have reuse as an element of their activities. Conservatively, 20% of the companies identified through public resources were determined to be either out of business or not engaged in electronics reuse or recycling.

An overview of the Electronics Recycling Industry is given. Followed by survey results.

Used Electronics Recycling Market Survey October 2001.

Used electronics recycling has become a growing concern for municipal and regional solid waste programs. The primary goal of this manual is to provide managers of these programs and other local officials with the basic tools to set up and operate effective electronics recycling/reuse programs by learning from the experiences of their peers. In order to provide this base of experience, a national survey of existing electronics recycling/reuse programs was conducted. The results of that survey and the experience of recycling coordinators and other recycling professionals provided the foundation for this document.

Manual Contents This document has four key components: 1. Section One: The results of the national electronics collection programs survey conducted between April and September 2001. 2. Section Two: General considerations for setting up and running any type of electronics collection program. 3. Section Three: Specific guidance about ongoing collection, special event, and curbside electronics collection programs. 4. Section Four: Appendices. in supplemental collection.

Used Electronics Market Study conducted by the Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. (NERC).

(Click to view section1. pdf)

(Click to view section2. pdf)
(Click to view section3. pdf)
(Click to view section4a. pdf)
(Click to view section4b. pdf)
(Click to view section4c. pdf)
(Click to view section4d. pdf)
(Click to view section4e. pdf)

1998 North Carolina Markets Assessment
of the Recycling Industry and Recyclable Materials

(Click to view .pdf 6.5MB)

Contents

Introduction
Executive Summary
Components of the Waste Stream and Recycling Rate
Commodity Profiles
Construction and Demolition
Electronics
Glass
Metals
Oil-Related
Organics
Paper
Plastics
Textiles
Tires
White Goods
Wood
Findings / Recommendations

Recycling Market Development for Engineering Thermoplastics from Used Electronic Equipment

Technical report March 2000 (Click to view .pdf)

Electronics Recycling Vendor Survey

Technical report August 1998 (Click to view .pdf)

Potential Markets for CRTs and Plastics from Electronics Demanufacturing.

Technical report August 1998 (Click to view .pdf)

List of Tables and Figures
Incoming Electronics Processed: by Weight, Time and Cost
Outgoing Commodities: Composition and Value
Incoming Electronics Composition (% of total)
Electronics Processing Efficiency: Labor Time and Cost per Ton
Outgoing Commodities: Pounds vs. Dollars
Outgoing Electronics Composition (% of total)
FY95 – FY98 Volumes and Revenues

“Why Climate Change is Relevant to Recycling and Waste Prevention Professionals?”

11 April 2000 (Click to view transcript .doc)

Toolkit for setting up Electronics Recycling Programmes

Case studies from US states. May 2003

(Click to view .pdf 2 MB)

 

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